Appendices bij Nollet & Stienstra
The effect of teacher expectations on boys’ underperformance in reading Prior research indicates a gender gap in reading performance among primary school students in which boys underperform compared to girls. Based on theories on gender differences in teacher expectations and how low teacher expectations lead to low student reading performance, we, firstly, examined to what extent teacher expectations can explain this gender gap in reading performance. Secondly, by including theories on gender stereotype threat and stigmatization, we studied the possible ‘buffering’ effect of high teacher expectations against boys’ underperformance in reading. The 2016 Dutch PIRLS data were used to examine the mediating and moderating effect of teacher expectations on the effect of student gender on students’ actual reading performance. The conducted multilevel analyses show that, although the gender gap in reading performance indeed exists, teacher expectations do not significantly explain or buffer it. Limitations of the current research and implications for future research are discussed.